I will start by going down each column and naming what each lettering stands for. I will start with the column of the left.
- t 10. p 19. ch 28. k, kw
- d 11. b 20. j 29. g
- th 12. f 21. sh, khw/hw23. ch
- dh 13. v 22. zh 24. gh
- n (nn) 14. m 23. nh 25. mh
- (untrilled) r, (n) 15. w 24. a,y 26. e
- r 16. r (rh) 25. L 27. L, Lh
- s 17. s 26. z 28. z
- h 18. w (hw) 27. y (e) 29. w (u)
Now you might have noticed that all the vowels are not in there. That is because the vowels are conveyed using dots and lines above the consonants of the word. Here it gets a little tricky, because sometimes a word ends in a vowel and sometimes it starts with a vowel. So you can be unsure whether the vowel belongs before or behind the consonant it is above. I like to generally place the vowel above the preceding consonant, and write an actually lettering for the vowel if it starts the word.
The vowels are like so: One dot above a letter means it is an "i" or an "e." Two dots means it is "ie." Three dots means its an "a." A squiggly line like "~" means its an "o" or a "u." If you want to say I singularly make a symbol like a "j" or a ";" and it will mean "I."
This is really very simple once you get the hang of it. I taught myself how to do this. You can find this lettering in the Appendix of The Return of the King. It also gives explanations in the Appendix if this was unclear.